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INDEX

  • ADVERTISING
  • ALLERGIES: 11/25/02
  • CHILDREN
  • DIETS [High Protein: 11/02/02] [Blood Type] [McDougall] [Mediterranean: 11/25/02] [Ornish] [Pritkin] [Zone: 03/12/03]
  • DISEASES [Altzheimer's] [Parkinson's] CANCER [General: 11/25/02] [Breast] [Colon] [Lung: 09/20/02] [Prostate: 11/25/02] [Uterine] [Diabetes] [Food Borne] [Heart Disease: 10/08/02] [Obesity]
  • GENERAL HEALTH
  • GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
  • LONGEVITY
  • NUTRITION [Burgers] [Calcium] [Dairy] [Fiber] [Milk] [Protein] [Sodium: 11/25/02]
  • PREGNANCY
  • WORLD HUNGER
  • [LINKS] [BOOKS]

ALLERGIES

"Only seven foods comprise 95 percent of food allergies: milk, soy, fish, wheat, eggs, peanuts, and tree nuts." (The Yale Guide to Children's Nutrition, page 186, 1997.) [02.11.25.01]


CHILDREN

"U.S. children who are overweight or obese: 25% (29)" (Troiano, R. et. al., "Overweight children and adolescents" Pediatrics 1998;101:497-504; Troiano, R., "Overweight Prevalence and Trends for Children and Adolescents," Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 1995; 149:1085-91) [02.06.20:01]

"U.S. vegetarian children who are overweight or obese: 8%" (John Robbin's estimate based on lengthy discussions with many physicians and dieticians familiar with the vegetarian and vegan community) [02.06.20:02]  

"U.S. children who eat the recommended levels of fruits, vegetables, and grains: 1%" (Munoz, K, et al, "Food Intakes of U.S. Children and Adolescents Compared with Recommendations," Pediatrics, Sept 1997, pg 323-29. See also, "Few Young People Eat Wisely, Study Shows," Associated Press, New York Times, Sept 3, 1997, A-12) [02.06.20:03]

"U.S. vegan children who eat the recommended levels of fruits, vegetables, and grains: More than 50%" (John Robbin's estimate based on lengthy discussions with many physicians and dieticians familiar with the vegetarian and vegan community) [02.06.20:04]

"Average I.Q. of U.S. children: 97" ("U.S. Children's I.Q.s Sink," Los Angeles Times, Feb 6. 1993) [02.06.20:05]

"Average I.Q. of vegetarian children: 116" (Dwyer. JT, et al, "Mental age and I.Q. of predominately vegetarian children," Journal of the American Dietetic Association," 1980;76:142-47) [02.06.20:06]



DIETS (High Protein)

"Names of some of the many popular high-fat, high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: Dr. Atkins New Diet Revolution, The Beverly Hills Diet, Protein Power, The Carbohydrate Adict's Diet, The Stilman Diet, The Scarsdale Diet, Charles Hunt's Diet Evolution, The Quick Weight-Loss Diet, etc."

"How many of these diets are advertised as low calorie diets: None" [02.11.02:01]

"How many of these diets are actually low calorie diets: All of them --- they all prescirbe a daily caloric intake that is well below average requirements" [02.11.02:02]

"How the American Dietetic Association describes these diets: "A nightmare" ("Demand for Meat Diet Fattens Prices," Meat Industry Insights, Oct 26, 1999) [02.11.02:03]

"Primary mechanism by which these diets cause weight loss: Ketosis" ("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research: http://www.eatingbythebook.com/fads/fads.html) [02.11.02:04]

"Ketosis is an indicator used at the Atkins Center as a marker for whether a person is staying on the diet... The Atkins diet is a lifelong nutritional philosophy... The important thing is you are in ketosis." (Dr. Robert Atkins: http://atkinscenter.com/helpatkins/faqs/faqlipolysis/index.html) [02.11.02:05]

"Consequences of extended ketosis: Muscle breakdown, nausea, dehydration, headaches, light-headedness, irritability, bad breath, kidney problems, and increased risk of heart disease." (("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research: http://www.eatingbythebook.com/fads/more1.html) [02.11.02:06]

"Potential consequences of extended ketosis in pregnancy: Fetal abnormality or death" [02.11.02:07]

"Danger of extended ketosis for diabetics: Death" [02.11.02:08]

"Atkins' diet can lead to the kind of rapid weight fluctuations that adversely effect the heart. Moreover, the breakdown of fatty acids that occurs during ketosis may also increase the risk of heart disease. One of the basic tenets of Atkins' diet is that sugar causes cancer. Such misleadning pronouncements are essentially scare tactics, meant to direct the dieter towards foods on the Atkins plan. Finally, nothing about this plan encourages the dieter to learn some very basic weight management strategies like portion control and serving sizes, let alone develop the skills necessary for a lifetime of balanced nutrition." ("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research: http://www.eatingbythebook.com/fads/more1.html) [02.11.02:09]

"Evaluation of Beverly Hills Diet Plan by American Institute for Cancer Research: "A wide range of fundamentally unhealthy habits. Of equal concern are the healthy habits it doesn't mention." ("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research: http://www.eatingbythebook.com/fads/more3.html) [02.11.02:10]

"Advocates of high protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets claim: Eating carbohydrates raises insulin levels, while eating proteins and fats does not" [02.11.02:11]

"Scientific reality (published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition): Beef raises insulin levels more than white pasta; Fish raises insulin levels more than whole grain bread; Beef raises insulin levels 27 times higher than brown rice." ("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research) [02.11.02:12]

"Advocates of these diets base their calims on: The Glycemic Index" [02.11.02:13]

"The weight-management strategy espoused by researchers who helped develop the Glycemic Index in no way resembles the low-carbohydrate, high-protein plan of fad diets. Most of the foods with low G.I.'s, in fact, are fruits, vegetables, grains and beans, so the diet espoused by Glycemic Index researchers looks quite different from the meat-, milk-, and cheese-based plans found on the bestsellers lists today." ("Fad Diets Versus Dietary Guidelines," American Institute for Cancer Research, http://www.eatingbythebook.com/fads/more7.html; See also Blix, G., "The Glycemic index: Irrelevant indicator or indispensable Instrument?" issues in Vegetarian Dietetics, Spring 2000) [02.11.02:14]

"Robert Atkins and other advocates of high-protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets claim: For people with insulin resistance, eating carbohydrates will raise insulin levels, causing weight gain and heart disease" [02.11.02:15]

"Scientific reality (published in the American Journal of Cardiology): Among people with insulin resistance, three weeks on a high-complex-carbohydrate diet, along with exercise, reduced insulin levels by 30%. Additional benefits included a 4% decrease in weight, and more than 20% reductions in cholesterol and triglycerides, indicating greatly reduced heart disease risk." (Journal of the American Dietic Association 1980;77:264, cited in McDougall, J., "Americans are getting fatter -- and dying from it," EarthSave, 2000) [02.11.02:16]

"My diet will correct most of the risk factors for heart disease." (Dr. Robert Atkins: Millenium Lecture Series Symposium on the Great Nutrition Debate, Jefferson Auditorium," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb 24, 2000) [02.11.02:17]

"People who followed the Atkins diet for 12 weeks showed significant increases in LDL ("bad") cholesterol, and substantial reductions in HDL (good" cholesterol), indicating markedly increased risk for heart attacks." (1980;77:264, cited in McDougall, J., "Americans are getting fatter --- and dying from it," EarthSave, 2000) [02.11.02:18]

"How long Atkins has been claiming his diet reverses heart disease: 30 years" [02.11.02:19]

"Studies published that substantiated his claim: None" [02.11.02:20]

"Studies published by Dr. Robert Atkins in any journal ever: None" [02.11.02:21]

"Findings of the only recent study pointed to by Dr. Robert Atkins to support his diet (done by Dr. Eric Westman and funded by Atkins himself): On the Atkins diet, 70% of people become constipated, and 65% develop bad breath." Dr. Dean Ornish: Millenium Lecture Series Symposium on the Great Nutrition Debate, Jefferson Auditorium," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb 24, 2000. Dr. Westman was present and did not dispute the findings or Ornish's statement) [02.11.02:22]

"Foods highly recommended by Dr. Robert Atkins: Pork rinds and sausage" [02.11.02:23]

"Telling people that pork rinds and sausage is good for you is an appealing way to sell books, but it's irresponsible and it's dangerous for people who follow this advice." (Dean Ornish: Millenium Lecture Series Symposium on the Great Nutrition Debate, Jefferson Auditorium," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb 24, 2000) [02.11.02:24]

"Robert Atkins and other advocates of high protein, high-fat, low-carbohydrate diets claim: High protein diets improve all aspects of our lives" [02.11.02:25]

"High protein diets impair mental functioning." (International Journal of Obesity Related Metabolic Disorders 1995;19:811) [02.11.02:26]

"[On high protein low carbohydrate diets] people lose weight, at least in the short term. But this is absolutely the worst diet you could imagine for long-term obesity, heart disease, and some forms of cancer. If you wanted to find one diet to ruin your helath, you couldn't find one worse than Atkins. We have 18 million diabetics in this country, 50 million people with high blood pressure. They can have kidney problems, and high protein intake will bring them on faster. The diet is thrombogenic: meaning that fat will tend to form lipid particles in your blood after meals, which could lead to blood clots, meaning heart attack or stroke. We worry about this, becuase many of the people who love these diets are men aged 40 t 50, who like their meat. They may be 5 years from their first heart attack. This couldn't be worse for them. Did you know that for 50% of men who die from heart attacks, the fatal attack is their first symptom? They will never know what this diet is doing to them." (James Anderson, M.D., Professor of Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kentucky School of Medicine) (Lawerence, Jean, "High Fat, Low Carbs, What's the Harm," CBS Healthwatch, Medscape, Dec 1999) [02.11.02:27]

"You can lose weight in lots of ways that aren't healthy. You can take chemotherapy or get cancer or AIDS or be an alcoholic and lose weight... The problem with high animal protein diets is that even if you can lose weight, you're mortgaging your health in the process." (Dean Ornish, M.D., Professor of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco; Founder and President, Preventive Medicine Research Institute: Millenium Lecture Series Symposium on the Great Nutrition Debate, Jefferson Auditorium," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb 24, 2000) [02.11.02:28]

"Length of time Dr. Atkins has been on his own diet: 36 years" (Millenium Lecture Series Symposium on the Great Nutrition Debate, Jefferson Auditorium," U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Feb 24, 2000) [02.11.02:29]

"Physical condition of Dr. Robert Atkins: So overweight that he exceeds the upper limits of weight recommended by federal guidelines" (Attwood, Charles, "Enter the 'Zone': A Giant Leap Backwards," http://www.vegsource.com/attwood/zone.htm) [02.11.02:30]


DIETS (Mediterranean)

"A study conducted in India suggests that a "Mediterranean"-type diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and certain oils can reduce the risk of heart attack and death in people who already have heart disease. Such a diet may be more helpful in reducing heart problems than diets that focus solely on cutting saturated fat and cholesterol. "[in the study] those eating the Mediterranean diet had an even lower cholesterol than the control group. "Our trial in a non-Western population has shown that, over 2 years, a diet enriched with fruit, vegetables, nuts, whole grains and mustard or soy bean oil is associated with a pronounced decline in coronary artery disease morbidity and mortality," the authors conclude. "The long-term benefits may be even more substantial," they add." (The Lancet 2002;360:1455-1461.) [02.11.25.01]


DIETS ("The Zone")

"Barry Sears' promise: Follow his diet and you will achieve permanent weight loss, increased energy, and improved health --- and all without restricting calories." ("Enter the Zone", Sears, Barry, Harper/Collilns, New York, NY, 1995)

"This is not a calorie deprivation program." ("Enter the Zone," pg. 97)

"Daily calories recommended by the National Academy of Sciences for a 128 pound woman: 2,000"

"Daily calories recommended by some females following the Zone diet: 1,100" (http://www.drsears.com/site/Tools/FAQs/FAQsHome.nsf)

"Daily calories recommended by the National Research Council for a 175 pound man: 2,900"

"Daily calories consumed by some males following the Zone die: 1,400"
(http://www.drsears.com/site/Tools/FAQs/FAQsHome.nsf) [03.03.12.01]


"It is painfully clear, in spite of Sears statements to the contrary, that the foundation of the Zone is extreme calorie restriction. In the short term, such a very low calorie diet will indeed lead to weight loss, but most of it is water loss. In the long term, it will cause nutritional deficiencies and a decreased metabolic rate, making it even harder to maintain a healthy weight." (Jennifer Raymond, nutritionist - "Caution: Approaching the Zone" - http://www.navs-online.org/voice/zone.html) [03.03.12.02]


"Food that Sears says eating could put you into what he calls "carbohydrate hell": Carrot" (Lindner, Lawrence, "Eating Right," Washington Post, May 9, 2000, Z18)

"Foods Sears says are acceptable in the Zone diet, as long as you add low-fat cottage cheese: Haagen-Dazs ice cream, Snickers bars, 12-ounce bottles of beer, Boston Cream pie." ("Enter the Zone," p. 259) [03.03.12.03]


"Humankind has been geneticallly unable to cope with...grains." ("Enter the Zone," p. 102)

"Sears' explanation for the indisputable reality that the vast majority of the human race has for thousands of years relied on grains for the vast majority of its food energy: None." [03.03.12.04]


"For cardiovascular patients, a high-carbohydrate diet may be hazardous to their health." ("Enter the Zone," p. 206)

"Sears' explanation for the spectacular results hundreds of cardiovascular patients have repeatedly achieved in reversing heart disease on Dr. Ornish's high-carbohydrate near vegan diet program: None." [03.03.12.05]

"Sears' unique dietary advice: "You must treat food as if it were a drug. You must eat...as if it were an intravenous drip... The best time to eat is when you're not hungry... You can burn more fat watching TV than by exercising."
("Enter the Zone," p. 3, 96, back cover) [03.03.12.06]

"Barry Sears' The Zone... is another diet craze... Sears' advice will probably help you lose weight, but only because you'll be eating fewer calories, not because his untested theories about protein, carbohydrates and insulin will put you into what he calls 'The Zone.' And to experts who have seen miracle diets come and go like hemlines, hair-dos, and celebrity romances, that's nothing new... The Zone and other 'carbo-phobia' diets are based on an eensy-weensy kernel of truth --- blown way out of proportion by theory, not evidence." (Center for Science in the Public Interest, Liebmann, Bonnie, "Carbo-Phobia - Zoning Out on the New Diet Books," Nutrition Action, July/Aug 1996) [03.03.12.07]

"Although Sears hides it, the book advocates a low-calorie diet... Sears relies on studies that have never been published, peer-reviewed, or adequately controlled. It's science-fiction... He's preying on vulnerable people." (Alice Lichentenstein, U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, as quoted by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Liebmann, Bonnie, "Carbo-Phobia - Zoning Out on the New Diet Books," Nutrition Action, July/Aug 1996) [03.03.12.08]


"Expert cited by Barry Sears to support his theory that eating more carbohydrates raises blood insulin which causes weight gain --- and so the way to lose weight is to eat more protein and fat and less carbohydrates: Gerald Reaven, M.D., Stanford University." ("Enter the Zone," p. 30)

"I disagree strongly with the notion that having high blood insulin, by itself, makes you gain more weight. There are so many studies showing that if you decrease calories, people lose weight, and it doesn't matter if you do it by cutting fat, protein or carbohydrate." (Gerald Reaven, M.D., Stanford University, as quoted by the Center for Science in the Public Interest, Liebmann, Bonnie, "Carbo-Phobia - Zoning Out on the New Diet Books," Nutrition Action, July/Aug 1996)

"Studies published by Barry Sears in any journal ever: None." [03.03.12.09]


"Physical condition of Barry Sears: So overweight that he exceeds the upper limits of weight recommended by federal guidelines."
(Attwood, Charlies, "Enter the Zone: A Giant Leap Backwards," http://www.vegsource.com/attwood/zone.htm)

"Physical possibility for a man 6' 5" (as Sears is) to eat 1,330 calories a day (as Sears would if he followed his own diet in the manner he claims) for any substantial length of time and still be overweight: None." [03.03.12.10]



CANCER (general)

"The leading cancer in men, regardless of race, is prostate cancer, followed by lung/bronchus and colon/rectal. Prostate cancer rates are 1.5 times higher in black men than white men.” (http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/uscs/pressrelease.htm, "United States Cancer Statistics: 1999 Incidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR).") [02.11.25.02.01]

"The leading cancer in women, regardless of race, is breast cancer, followed by lung/bronchus and colon/rectal in white women, and colon/rectal and lung/bronchus in black women. Breast cancer rates are about 20 percent higher in white women than in black women.” (http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/npcr/uscs/pressrelease.htm, "United States Cancer Statistics: 1999 Incidence by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), in collaboration with the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR).") [02.11.25.02.02]

"The (1997) report (Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, analyzing more than 4,500 research studies) by the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research concludes its analysis of vegetarian diets and cancer by stating: “Vegetarian diets decrease the risk of cancer." (World Cancer Research Fund and American institute for Cancer Research, “Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a global persective, 1997, pg 456-57) [02.07.27:01]

"The report’s number one dietary recommendation - 'Choose predominantly plant-based diets rich in a variety of vegetables and fruits, legumes, and minimally processed starchy staple foods.'" (World Cancer Research Fund and American institute for Cancer Research, “Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: a global persective, 1997, pg 509) [02.07.27:02]  

"The vast majority of all cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other forms of degenerative illness can be prevented simply by adopting a plant-based diet.” (T. Colin Campbell, Ph.D., Senior Science Advisor to the American Institute for Cancer Research) [02.07.27:03]

"Number of years the average U.S. life expectancy would increase if all cancers could be cured by a magic bullet overnight (according to estimates by Beverly Winikoff, M.D., a physician at Rockefeller University): 2 years" (Cited in Ornstein, Robert, and Ehrlich, Paul, “New World, New Mind,” touchstone/Simon and Schuser, New York NY, 1989, pg 121) [02.07.27:04]  

"Number of years the average U.S. life expectancy would increase (according to Dr. Winikoff) if good nutrition, exercise, and non-smoking became the norm: 7 years" (Cited in Ornstein, Robert, and Ehrlich, Paul, “New World, New Mind,” Touchstone/Simon and Schuser, New York NY, 1989, pg 121) [02.07.27:05]  

"The basic reason why heart disease and cancer have become the number one and number two causes of death in the U.S. and other affluent countries is that people are living longer. What has allowed us to live long enough to run these risks? Meat, among other things.” (National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, “Fact Sheet” Retort to the PBS Documentary, Diet For a New America.) [02.07.27:06]  

"Likelihood of a vegetarian reaching the age of 80 compared to a non-vegetarian (after adjusting for smoking): 1.8 times greater." (Key, T.J.A., et. al., “Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up,” British Medical Journal 1996:313:775-79; See also Key, T., et. al., “Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies,” American Journal of clinical Nutrtion 1999; 70(sup):516S-24S; And Frentzel-Beyme, R., et. al., “Vegetarian diets and colon cancer: the German experience,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994:59Ssup):1143S-52S) [02.07.27:07]  

"Now some people scoff at vegetarians, but they have only 40 percent of our cancer rate. They outlive us. On average they outlive other men by about six years now." (William Castelli, M.D., Director, Framingham Heart Study; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute) Barnard, Neal, The Power of Your Plate, Book Publishing Company, Summertown, TN, 1990, pg 26) [02.07.27:08]  

"Cancer rates for vegetarians compared to general population, after controlling for smoking, body mass index, and socio-economic status: 25 - 50% less" (Chang-Claude, J., et. al., “Mortality pattern of German vegetarians after 11 years of follow-up,” Epidemiology 1992:3:395-401; Thorogood, M., et. al., “Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters,” British Medical Journal 1994:308:1667-70) [02.07.27:09]



PROSTATE CANCER

"A diet rich in flaxseed seems to reduce the size, aggressiveness and severity of tumors in mice, according to new research from Duke University Medical Center. And in 3 percent of the mice, the flaxseed diet kept them from getting the disease at all. " (The research was sponsored by the National Institute on Aging, the National Cancer Institute and the Committee for Urologic Research Education and Development at Duke University Medical Center. http://dukemednews.duke.edu/news/article.php?id=6041) [02.11.24.01]

"Clinical studies... have suggested that dietary fiber reduces cancer risk, and omega-3 fatty acids also have shown a protective benefit against cancer. Flaxseed is the richest plant source of omega-3 fatty acids and is high in fiber. Also, flaxseed is a source of lignan, a specific family of fiber-related compounds that appear to play a role in influencing both estrogen and testosterone metabolism." (The research was sponsored by the National Institute on Aging, the National Cancer Institute and the Committee for Urologic Research Education and Development at Duke University Medical Center. http://dukemednews.duke.edu/news/article.php?id=6041) [02.11.24.02]

"... in a recent study from China, which suggests that a daily serving from the allium group of vegetables--garlic, scallions, onions, leeks, and chives--may help protect against the development of prostate cancer. The reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with allium vegetables was independent of body size, intake of other foods, and total calorie intake and was more pronounced for men with localized than with advanced prostate cancer. " (Journal National Cancer Institute: Vol. 94, No. 21, Nov '02 > Hsing et al., pp. 1648-1651) [02.11.24.03]



LUNG CANCER

"The evidence that diets high in vegetables and fruits protect against lung cancer is convincing... The most effective way of preventing lung cancer is not to use tobacco. The most effective dietary means of preventing lung cancer is consumption of diets high in vegetables and fruits." (Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research, and World Cancer Research Fund) [02.09.20:01]

"Most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide: lung cancer" [02.09.20:02]

"Number of lives lost in the U.S. to lung cancer annually: 150,000" [02.09.20:03]

"Impact of smoking on lung cancer incidence: So overwhelming that even people exposed to second-hand smoke are at heightened risk" [02.09.20:04]

"Impact on risk of lung cancer for people who frequently eat green, orange and yellow vegetables: 20%-60% reduction " (Hirayama T., "Diet and cancer," Nutrition and Cancer, 1979a;1:67-81. See also Colditz, G.A. et. al., "Diet and lung cancer: a review of the epidemiologic evidence in humans," Archives of Internal Medicine 1987;147:157-60; And International Journal of Cancer 1998;78:430-366, cited in "Fruits, carrots may reduce lung cancer risk," Reuters, Nov. 25, 1999) [02.09.20:05]

"The vegetabale with the strongest protective effect: Carrot" (International Journal of Cancer 1998;78:430-36, cited in "Fruits, carrots may reduce lung cancer risk," Reiters. Nov. 25, 1999) [02.09.20:06]

"Impact on risk of lung cancer among people who consume a lot of apples, bananas and grapes: 40% reduction" (International Journal of Cancer 1998;78:430-36, cited in "Fruits, carrots may reduce lung cancer risk," Reiters. Nov. 25, 1999) [02.09.20:07]

"Rate of lung cancer in British vegetarian men compared to the general British population: 27%" (Key, T., et. al., "Dietary habits and mortality in 1,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up," British Medical Journal 1998:313:775-79) [02.09.20:08]

"Rate of lung cancer in British vegetarian women compared to the general British population: 37%" (Dietary habits and mortality in 1,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up," British Medical Journal 1998:313:775-79) [02.09.20:09]

"Rate of lung cancer in German vegetarian men compared to the general German population: 8%" (Frentzel-Beyme, R., et. al., "Vegetarian diets and colon cancer: the German experience," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1994;59Ssup):1143S-52S) [02.09.20:10



HEART DISEASE

"Number one killer of Americans: Heart disease." (American Heart Association, Heart Attack and Angina Statistics, 1999) [02/10/08:01]

"Average American male's risk of developing heart disease: 50%" (First Estimate of Lifetime Risk for Developing Coronary Heart Disease," National Institutes of Health News Release, Jan. 7, 1999) [02/10/08:02]

"Average American female's risk of developing heart disease: 33%" (First Estimate of Lifetime Risk for Developing Coronary Heart Disease," National Institutes of Health News Release, Jan. 7, 1999) [02/10/08:03]

"Single greatest risk factor for heart disease: High blood cholesterol level." (Roberts, William, "Artherosclerotic Risk Factors - Are there ten or is there only one?" American Journal of Cardiology 1989;64:552) [02/10/08:04]

"Proteins that raise cholesterol levels: Animal proteins." (Anderson, JW, et. al., Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids, New England Journal of Medicine 1995;333:276-82. See also Carroll KK. Dietary protein in relation to plasma cholesterol levels and artheroscerosis. Nutrition Review 1978;36:1-5) [02/10/08:05]

"Proteins that lower cholesterol levels: Soy proteins." (Anderson, JW, et. al., Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids, New England Journal of Medicine 1995;333:276-82. See also Carroll KK. Dietary protein in relation to plasma cholesterol levels and artheroscerosis. Nutrition Review 1978;36:1-5) [02/10/08:06]

"Primary dietary sources of cholesterol: Eggs, shellfish, chicken, beef, fish, pork, cheese, butter, milk." [02/10/08:07]

"Plant foods continaing cholesterol: NONE." [02/10/08:08]

"Drop in heart disease risk for every 1 percent decrease in blood cholesterol: 3-4 percent" (Law MR, WaldNJ, Wu T., et. al., Systematic underestimation of association between serum cholesterol concentration and ischaemic heart disease.... British Medical Journal 1994; 308:363-66) [02/10/08:09]

"Blood cholesterol levels of vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians: 14 percent lower" (Resnicow K, Barone J, Engle A, et. al., Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: A model for risk reduction. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1991;91:447-53. See also West RO, et. al., "Diet and serum cholesterol levels: a comparison between vegetarians and nonvegetarians..." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1968;21:853-63; Sacks, FM, Ornish, D., et. al., "Plasma lipoprotein levels in vegetarians: the effect of ingestion of fats from dairy products, " Journal of the American Medical Association 1985;254:1337-41; Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD 1996) [02/10/08:10]

"Risk of death from heart disease for vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians: Half" (Virginia Messina, coauthor of the American Dietetic Association position paper on vegetarian diets, Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 20) [02/10/08:11]

"[It is a] myth [that] the risk of death from heart disease can be reatly reduced if a person avoids eating a meat-centered diet." (Myths and Facts About Beef Production: Diet and Health, National Cattlemen's Beef Association) [02/10/08:12]

"Vegetarians have lower rates of cancer, heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, gallstones, kidney disease, obesity, and colon disease." (Virginia Messina, coauthor of the American Dietetic Association position paper on vegetarian diets, Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 58) [02/10/08:13]

"Vegetarian have the best diet; they have the lowest rates of coronary heart disease of any group in the country." (William Castelli, M.D., Director, Framingham Health Study, the longest running study of diet and heart disease in world medical history, "First Estimate of Lifetime Risk for Developing Coronary Heart Disease," National Institutes of Health News Release, Jan. 7, 1999) [02/10/08:14]

"In regions where... meat is scarce, cardiovascular disease is unknown." (Walles, C., "Hold The Eggs and Butter: Cholesteral is Proved Deadly and Our Diets May Never Be the Same," Time, March 26, 1984, pg. 62) [02/10/08:15]

"Meat, dairy and egg industries' position: "Your genetics are a prime determinant of whether you will get arteriosclerosis and heart disease. If your paents and grandparents had it, then you are a candidate; if they didn't have it, your risk is much lower." (Holerton, Gene, The Beef-Eater's Guide to Modern Meat, Holerton publishing, Los angeles, CA, 1998, pg. 6) [02/10/08:16]

"It is true that a small percentage of patients have a hereditary form of arteriosclerosis in the sense that in their immediate family and their parents' and grandparents' families, there is a high incidence of arteriosclerosis and coronary heart disease... but that only constitutes about five percent of the cases. Most people (who develop heart disease) don't really have a hereditary disease." (Michael Debakey, M.D., Director, Cardiovascular Research Center, pioneer in heart transplants, bypasses, and the artificial heart, as cited by: Barnard, Dr. Neal, The Power of your Plate, Book Publishing Company, Summertown TN, 1990, pg. 25-6) [02/10/08:17]

"Blood cholesterol levels of vegans ( no meat, eggs, or dairy products) compared to non-vegetarians: 35 percent lower" (Resnicow K, Barone J, Engle A, et. al., Diet and serum lipids in vegan vegetarians: A model for risk reduction. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1991;91:447-53. See also Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide to Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, MD 1996) [02/10/08:18]

"Intake of cholesterol for non-vegetarians: 300-500 milligrams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02/10/08:19]

"Intake of cholesterol for non-vegetarians: 300-500 milligrams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02/10/08:19]

"Intake of cholesterol for vegans: Zero" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02/10/08:21]

"Average cholesterol level in the United States: 210" (McDougall, John, The McDougall Program for a Healthy Heart, Dutton, NY NY, 1996, pg. 134) [02/10/08:22]

"Average cholesterol level of U.S. vegetarians: 161" (McDougall, John, The McDougall Program for a Healthy Heart, Dutton, NY NY, 1996, pg. 66-7; See also Fisher, M. et. al., "The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels," Archives of Internal Medicine 1986;146:1193-97; Sacks, FM, e. al., "Plasma lipoprotein levels in vegetarians..." Journal of the American Medical Association 1983;254(10):1337-41) [02/10/08:23]

"Average cholesterol level of U.S. vegans: 133" (McDougall, John, The McDougall Program for a Healthy Heart, Dutton, NY NY, 1996, pg. 66-7; See also Fisher, M. et. al., "The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels," Archives of Internal Medicine 1986;146:1193-97; Sacks, FM, e. al., "Plasma lipoprotein levels in vegetarians..." Journal of the American Medical Association 1983;254(10):1337-41) [02/10/08:24]

"The fallacy... is that animal foods are the critical elements in the diet that are causing coronary heart disease." (National Cattlemen's Association "Fact Sheeet" Retort to the PBS Documentary, Diet For A New America) [02/10/08:25]

"We've never had a heart attack in Framingham in 35 years in anyone who had a cholesterol under 150." (William Castelli, M.D., Director, Framingham Health Study, the longest running study of diet and heart disease in world medical history, as cited by: Barnard, Dr. Neal, The Power of your Plate, Book Publishing Company, Summertown TN, 1990, pg. 15) [02/10/08:26]

"A large and convincing body of evidence from studies in humans . . . shows that diets low in saturated fatty acids and cholesterol are associated with low risks and rates of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease." (U.S. National Research Council, in "Diet and Health, Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk) [02/10/08:27]



OBESITY

"U.S. population considered obese by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1991: 12%" (Mokdad, A., et. al., “The Spread of the Obesity Epidemic in the United States,” Journal of the American medical Association 1999;282:1519-22.) [02.07.27:01]

"U.S. population considered obese by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998: 17.9%" (Mokdad, A., et. al., “The Spread of the Obesity Epidemic in the United States,” Journal of the American medical Association 1999;282:1519-22.) [02.07.27:02]

"Relative risk of obesity for meat eaters compared to vegetarians: 2.5 to 4 times greater" (Wyatt, C., et. al., “Dietary intake of sodium, potassium, and blood pressure in lacto-ovo vegetarians,” Nutrition Research 1995:15(6):819-30; See also Kahn, HS, et. al., “Stable behaviors associated with adults’ 10-year change in body mass index and likelihood of gain at the waist,” American Journal of Public Health, 1997:87:747-54; Key, T., et. al., “Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat,” British medical Journal 1996:313:816-17) [02.07.27:03]

"Obesity rate among vegans: Less than 1%" (John Robbin’s estimate after extensive consultation with physicians and dieticians familiar with the vegan community.) [02.07.27:04]

"Average weight of vegan adults compared to non-vegetarians: 10 - 20 lbs. lighter" (Harding, M.G., et. al., “Nutritional studies of vegetarians,” Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1954:2:73-82; Freeland-Graves, J.H., et. al., “Zinc status of vegetarians,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 1980:77:655-61; Key, T., et. al., “Prevalence of obesity is low in people who do not eat meat,” British Medical Journal 1996:313:816-17) [02.07.27:05]

"Americans killed annually by diseases due to excess weight: 280,000" (Allison, D., et. al., “Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States,” Journal of the American medical Association 1999:16:1530-38) [02.07.27:06]

"Increased risk of heart disease for obese people: Double to triple." (Root, Marty, “Obesity and Health: A Hard Look at the Data,” New Century Nutrition) [02.07.27:07]

"Increased risk of diabetes for very obese people: 40 times greater" (Root, Marty, “Obesity and Health: A Hard Look at the Data,” New Century Nutrition) [02.07.27:08]

"Increased risk of gallstones for obese people: Double to triple." (Root, Marty, “Obesity and Health: A Hard Look at the Data,” New Century Nutrition) [02.07.27:09]

"Increased risk of colon cancer for obese people: Triple to quadruple." (Root, Marty, “Obesity and Health: A Hard Look at the Data,” New Century Nutrition) [02.07.27:10]


SODIUM

"Today [11/12/02] the American Public Health Association approved policy calling for a fundamental shift in the restaurant and food processing industries and in consumer behavior to dramatically lower the amount of sodium consumed by Americans. "America is hooked on snacks and foods high in sodium," said Mohammad N. Akhter, MD, MPH, executive director of the American Public Health Association. "The bad news is this diet is killing us." (American Public Health Association, http://www.apha.org/news/press/2002/sodium_consumption.htm) [02.11.25.01]

"Cardiovascular diseases are responsible for 40 percent of all deaths in the United States and cost the nation more than $300 billion annually. Each year, 710,000 Americans die of heart disease and more than 166,000 die of stroke. Sodium is directly associated with elevated blood pressure levels, which is a major contributing factor for these diseases. " (American Public Health Association, http://www.apha.org/news/press/2002/sodium_consumption.htm) [02.11.25.02]

"The average American adult ingests nearly 4,000 mg of sodium daily, far exceeding the current recommendation to consume no more than 2,400 mg per day. Between two-thirds and three-fourths of the daily sodium intake of the U.S. population comes from salt in processed foods; the remainder comes from salt added while cooking or at the table." (American Public Health Association, http://www.apha.org/news/press/2002/sodium_consumption.htm) [02.11.25.03]