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PAGE UPDATE:
8-oct-02
FACTOIDS AND RESOURCE LINKS
Vegetarianism
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INDEX

  • FACTOIDS & STATISTICS (last update: 09/20/02)
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VEGETARIAN FACTOIDS & STATISTICS

 09/20/02:

"Some criticize this exclusively plant-based diet as extreme or draconian. Webster's dictionary defines draconian as 'inhumanly cruel.' A closer look reveals that 'extreme' or 'inhumanly cruel' describes not plant-based nutrition, but the consequences of our present Western diet. Having a sternum divided for bypass surgery or a stroke that renders one an aphasic invalid can be construed as extreme; and having a breast, prostate, colon, or rectum removed to treat cancer may seem inhumanly cruel. These diseases are rarely seen in populations consuming a plant-based diet." (Esselstyn, Caldwell, M.D., "Making The Change," www.heartattackproof.com/morethan04_change.htm) [02:09.20:01]

"I don't understand why asking people to eat a well-balanced vegetarian diet is considered drastic, while it is medically conservative to cut people open or put them on powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs for the rest of their lives." (Dean Ornish, M.D.) [02:09.20:02]

"Nutrients that reduce risk for heart disease (by protecting LDL cholesterol from oxidation): Vitamin E and Vitamin C" (Messina, Virginia, and Messina, Mark, "Vegetarianism and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease," Issues in Vegetarian Dietetics, Winter 1999, pg. 10-11) [02:09.20:03]

"Intake of Vitamin E for vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians: Double" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 470-73) [02:09.20:04]

"Intake of Vitamin C for vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians: 50% greater" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 464-67) [02:09.20:05]

"Foods without almost no Vitamin C: Meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and vegetable oils" [02:09.20:06]

"Nutrient that reduces risk for heart disease (by converting homocysteine to methione): Folate" (Boushey, CJ, et. al., "A Quantitative Assessment of Plasma Homocysteine as a risk factor for vascular disease," Journal of the American Medical Association 1995:274:1049-57; See also Messina, Virginia, and Messina, Mark, "Vegetarianism and Risk Factors for Cardioovascular Disease," Issues In Vegetarian Dietetics, Winter 1999, pg 10-11; Haddad, EG, et. al., "Dietary Intake and Biochemical, hematologic, and Immune Status of Vegans Compared to Non-vegetarians, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Sept. 1999, pg. 586S-593S; And DeRose, DJ, et. al., "Vegan Diet-Based Lifestyle Program Rapidly Lowers Homocysteine Levels," Preventive Medicine, March 2000, pgs 225-33) [02:09.20:07]

"Intake of folate for vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians: 50% greater" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 464-67) [02:09.20:08]

"Intake of folate for vegans compared to non-vegetarians: Double" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 464-67) [02:09.20:09]

"Heart disease risk for men consuming low amounts of fiber compared to those consuming high amounts: 50% greater" (Rimm, E.B., et. al., "Vegetable, fruit and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men," Journal of the american Medical Association 1996:275:447-51; Pietinen, P., et. al., "Intake of dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease in a cohort of Finnish men..." Circulation 1996: 94:2720-27; Messina, Virginia, and Messina, Mark, "Vegetarianism and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease," Issues in Vegetarian Dietetics, Winter 1999,k pg. 10-11) [02:09.20:10]

"Fiber in meats, dairy products, fish and eggs: 0" [02:09.20:11]

"Intake of fiber for non-vegetarians: 10 - 12 grams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02:09.20:12]

"Intake of fiber for lacto-ovo vegetarians: 20 -35 grams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02:09.20:13]

"Intake of fiber for vegans: 25 - 50 grams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02:09.20:14]

"Diseases besides heart disease for which higher fiber intake reduces risk: Colon cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 38-40,44) [02:09.20:15]

"Intake of fiber recommended by National Cancer Institute to reduce cancer risk: 20 - 35 grams/day" (Messina, Mark, and Messina, Virginia, The Dietician's Guide To Vegetarian Diets: Issues and Applications, Aspen Publishers, Gaithersburg, Maryland, 1996, pg. 18) [02:09.20:16]

"Intake of fiber recommended by American Diabetes Association: 20 - 35 grams/day" (American Diabetes Assciationk, "Principles of nutrition and dietary recommendations for individuals with diabetes mellitus," diabetes Care 1994:17:519-522) [02:09.20:17]

"We think we’re one of the carnivores, and we conducting our lives as if we were, but I would suggest, as have many others, that we are not. Unless we are willing to understand this, the health of this nation will not improve." (William Roberts, M.D., Editor-in-Chief, American Journal of Cardiology; Director, Baylor Cardiovascular Institute)" 02:09.20:18]



"Over 30 million Americans have explored a vegetarian eating pattern" (American Dietetic Association: http://www.eatright.com/nfs/nfs95.html) [02.07.26:01]

“Aging baby boomers are taking a proactive approach to their health by eating more meatless meals.” (American Dietetic Association: http://www.eatright.com/nfs/nfs95.html) [02.07.26:02]

“40% of the world's cancer cases could be prevented through the adoption of diets rich in grains, fruit and vegetables.” (American Institute for Cancer Research; World Cancer Fund 10/16/97 ) [02.07.26:03]

“About one-third of U.S. teenagers think that being a vegetarian is 'in.'” (American Dietetic Association: http://www.eatright.com/nfs/nfs95.html) [02.07.26:04]

“Health and taste are the top two reasons consumers are eating more meat-free meals.” (American Dietetic Association: http://www.eatright.com/nfs/nfs95.html) [02.07.26:05]

“A high-fat, animal-based diet is the single most significant cause of death from heart disease.” (Roger R. Williams, "Diet, Genes, Early Heart Attacks, and High Blood Pressure," in Nutrition in the ‘90s: Current Controversies and Analysis, ed. Frank N. Kotsonis and Maureen A. Mackey (New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1994), 237-316.) [02.07.26:06]

“Studies indicate that vegetarians often have lower morbidity (1) and mortality (2) rates from several chronic” degenerative diseases than do nonvegetarians. Although nondietary factors, including physical activity and abstinence from smoking and alcohol, may play a role, diet is clearly a contributing factor.” (1. Knutsen SF. Lifestyle and the use of health services. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1171S-1175S. 2. Key TH, Thorogood M, Appleby PM, Burr ML. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarian and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up. BMJ. 1996;313:775-779. See also: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:07]

“Vegetarian diets low in fat or saturated fat have been used successfully as part of comprehensive health programs to reverse severe coronary artery disease.” (Franklin TL, Kolasa KM, Griffin K, Mayo C, Badenhop DT. Adherence to very low fat diet by a group of cardiac rehabilitation patients in the rural southeastern United States. Arch Fam Med. 1995;4:551-554. Gould KL, Ornish D, Scherwitz L, Brown S, Edens RP, Hess MJ, Mullani N, Bolomey L, Dobbs F, Armstrong WT, Merritt T, Ports T, Sparler S, Billings J. Changes in myocardial perusion abnormalities by positron emission tomography after long-term intense risk factor modification. JAMA. 1995;274:894-901. See also: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:08]

“Vegetarian diets offer disease protection benefits because of their lower saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein content and often higher concentration ofolate (which reduces serum homocysteine levels), antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, carotenoids, and hytochemicals.” ( Janelle KC, Barr SI. Nutrient intakes and eating behavior scores of vegetarian and nonvegetarian women. JAm Diet Assoc. 1995;95:180-189. Jacob RA, Burri BJ. Oxidative damage and defense. Am J Clin Nutr. 1996;63(suppl):985S-990S. See also:: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:09]

“Most cases of osteoporosis have nothing to do with inadequate calcium intake. They are caused by overly rapid calcium loss caused by animal protein, sodium, caffeine, tobacco and inactivity. ” (Remer T. Manz F. Estimation of the renal net acid excretion by adults consuming diets containing variable amounts of protein. Am Clin Nutr 1994;59:1356-61. ) [02.07.26:10]

“Vegetarians tend to have a lower incidence of hypertension than nonvegetarians. This effect appears to be independent of both body weight and sodium intake.” (Beilin LJ. Vegetarian and other complex diets, fats, fiber, and hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr.1994;59(suppl):1130-1135. See also:: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:11]

“Type 2 diabetes mellitus is much less likely to be a cause of death in vegetarians than nonvegetarians, perhaps because of their higher intake of complex carbohydrates and lower body mass inde.” (Dwyer JT. Health aspects of vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr. 1988;48(suppl):712-738. See also:: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:12]

“Incidence of lung and colorectal cancer is lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarian.” (Key TH, Thorogood M, Appleby PM, Burr ML. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarian and health conscious people: results of a 17-year follow up. BMJ. 1996;313:775-779. Mills PK, Beeson WL, Phillips RL, Fraser GE. Cancer incidence among California Seventh-day Adventists,1976-1982. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994;59(suppl):1136S-1142S. See also: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:13]

“Every 12 minutes someone dies from breast cancer. Yet women who eat as few as two servings of vegetables per day reduce their breast cancer risk by 30%.” (Walter C. Willett, "Who Is Susceptible to Cancers of the Breast, Colon, and Prostate?" Annals of the New york Academy of Sciences 768 (Sept. 30, 1995): 1-11.) [02.07.26:14]

“Lower breast cancer rates have not been observed in Western vegetarians, but cross-cultural data indicate that breast cancer rates are lower in populations that consume plant-based diets (3). The lower estrogen levels in vegetarian women may be protective (4).” (3. Cancer Facts and Figures--1994. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society;1994. 4. Barbosa JC, Shultz TD, Filley SJ, Nieman DC. The relationship among adiposity, diet and hormone concentrations in vegetarian and nonvegetarian postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990;51:798-803. See also: http://www.eatright.org/adap1197.html) [02.07.26:15]